catechism of the catholic church (version not updated) codes of canon law. It seems is called “DVL” or “DigiValLib”, for Digital Vatican Library. The newly available Vatican documents, reported here for the first time, … David Kertzer would like to thank his collaborator, Roberto Benedetti, whose work in the Vatican archives, after Kertzer was compelled by the COVID-19 pandemic to leave Italy, proved crucial to unearthing the documents on the Finaly case. In the 17th century, under the orders of Pope Paul V, the Secret Archive was separated from the Vatican Library, where scholars had some very limited access, and remained closed to outsiders until the late 19th century, when Pope Leo XIII opened the archive to researchers, more than a thousand of whom now examine some of its documents each year. But that openness belies a … Despite a mounting official campaign against the Jews in France, the Finalys had both boys circumcised, in accordance with Jewish law, eight days after birth. It was Montini—the future Pope Paul VI—to whom the pope would later entrust the management of the Finaly case. On January 29, 1953, the court ordered Brun arrested for failing to produce the boys. By the time Napoleon became emperor in 1804, he envisaged a central archive in Paris of the records and treasures of Europe. “Some newspapers,” he wrote, “are reporting that the Finaly brothers will soon be taken to Israel to be reeducated in Judaism. There is more. New laws confining Italy’s Jews in concentration camps, the Jesuit insisted, offended the “good sense of the Italian people,” who believed that “the racial Law sanctioned by the Fascist Government against the Jews five years ago is sufficient to contain the tiny Jewish minority within its proper limits.”. At the same time, concealing her knowledge of the existence of any Finaly relatives, Brun got a local judge to name her the provisional guardian of the boys, now 3 and 4 years old. Their program eventually achieved 96% accuracy in parsing this type of text. Hopes that the agreement would lead to the speedy return of the boys were soon to be disappointed. But since at present this is not happening in Italy, one does not understand why and what need there is to return to a question that Mussolini’s Government considered already taken care of. What the pope did next has not, until the opening of the Vatican archives this year, been known. He had quietly worked behind the scenes, while Pius XII was pope, to prevent the Holy Office from condemning the works of the writer Graham Greene. Anni and Fritz Finaly had made it to within months of the Allied liberation of France when the Gestapo seized them and sent them to their death. The photograph of her arrest and the mystery of what had happened to the Finaly boys kicked off what would be many months of intense public interest in the case, in France and beyond. The true name of the Vatican's clandestine intelligence service is Santa Alleanza ("Holy Alliance") or L'Entità ("The Entity") according to Allen Dulles, the first director of the CIA. Receiving a draft of the proposed agreement in early March, the pope called on his expert on Jewish affairs, Dell’Acqua, to prepare an analysis. Although the pope was the titular head of the Congregation of the Holy Office, the cardinals who composed it, along with the cadre of theological consultants who advised them, met separately and typically sent their recommendations to the pope through Monsignor Montini. The pope, as Sovereign of Vatican City, owns the material held in the archive until his death or resignation, with ownership passing to his successor. The fact that Mussolini’s regime relied heavily on Church materials—its newspapers and magazines filled with references to the measures popes had taken over the centuries to protect “healthy” Christian society from the threat posed by the Jews—to justify its anti-Semitic laws led to little rethinking of Church doctrine or practice under his papacy. He had begun working for him as one of his two chief deputies when Pacelli was still the Vatican’s secretary of state and continued in the same role when, in 1939, Pacelli ascended to the papacy. The Vatican Secret Archives was a great documentary about the archives. In the face of this campaign, it complained, the reaction among France’s Catholics had been woefully weak, with only two of the Catholic periodicals having “energetically raised their voice in defense of the rights of the Church.”, Since the arrests, Cardinal Gerlier had agreed to negotiations with Jacob Kaplan, chief rabbi of Paris, to find a way out of the crisis. The archive will be opened on March 2.  While character-recognition software is adept at reading typed text, the cramped and many-serifed style of medieval handwriting makes distinguishing individual characters difficult for the software. In fact, Herzog sought a public call for the release of all Jewish children being kept from their families.  His predecessor Marino Marini had produced an account of Galileo's trials that failed to satisfy scholars who saw it as an apology for the Inquisition. Vatican's Secret Archives no longer officially secret after renaming. Herzog’s visit came as part of a mission to help locate the missing Jewish orphans of the Holocaust. * “That,” the rabbi told him, “would immensely facilitate our task.”, David I. Kertzer: The doctored ‘memoir’ of a Jewish boy kidnapped by the Vatican. Popes would also have multiple places of residency. ), The following year, the family made another attempt to have Robert and Gérald returned, this time by confronting Brun in person. “The free will of the two boys, who have declared their wish to remain Catholic, is protected by the agreement. As the saga approached its final chapter, the battle over Robert and Gérald Finaly would take on a new complexion. Four days later, the Germans took Anni and Fritz. First, Robert and Gérald had to be placed in a “neutral” educational institution “in such a manner as not to get in the way of the boys’ practice of the Catholic religion.” Second, guarantees had to be given that Brun, Mother Antonine, and all the others charged with kidnapping either be absolved of the charges or amnestied. When she heard what had happened, she immediately secured immigration permits for the two boys to join her in New Zealand. “The attitude of the Spanish authorities,” the French ambassador complained to the Vatican, as a newly available Vatican record of the conversation reveals, “remains less than clear. On June 22, the French ambassador followed up with a memo he gave to Montini, which Montini in turn quickly forwarded to the nuncio in Madrid: “The Governor of San Sebastián [in Spain’s Basque region] continues to think … that the Spanish Basque clergy have the last word and that ‘without a formal order from Rome, the boys will remain in the shadows.’” The French government, the ambassador reported, found the Church’s failure to abide by the terms of Cardinal Gerlier’s agreement for the return of Robert and Gérald a matter of growing concern. ), as well as the purpose of their research. “Nor would I suggest responding with a document of the Secretariat of State directed to the Chief Rabbi because it would certainly be exploited by Jewish propaganda.” Rather, the best course, Dell’Acqua advised, was simply to instruct the papal delegate in Jerusalem to offer a generic verbal reply, saying that it would be necessary to look into each case individually. “We will give it all our attention,” the pope had said, asking that his visitor send him “some statistics” on the matter. He had been promised their return, the rabbi said, but now, almost three months later, Catholic clergy were still hiding them. High Church officials, he charged, had never publicly condemned the baptism of the Finaly children and the Church had taken no action to pry their whereabouts from the priests and nuns who knew where they were. But Bishop Sergio Pagano, director of the Vatican Secret Archive, said that the opening of the archives would allow researchers to investigate Pope Pius’s papacy without prejudice, in all its realistic scope and richness. The archive also contains state papers, correspondence, account books, and many other documents that the church has accumulated over the centuries. What should the pope do now? Fritz Finaly, a medical doctor, was 37 and his wife, Anni, was 28 when the Germans came for them. Solve this problem by developing a machine-learning software that could parse this.! 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